Colonoscopy is a commonly used imaging modality for the diagnosis and treatment of large bowel diseases.

During the procedure, a flexible device called a colonoscope, 160 cm long, forefinger thickness, a tiny camera at the end, channels for water and air passage is used.

Camera images are reflected on a high-resolution television screen. In patients with adequate intestinal cleansing, the large intestine can be seen by opening air. The procedure is usually performed under anesthesia (sedation) as the abdomen may cause tension and pain in the abdomen.

Polyps, tumors, inflammatory changes in the large intestine, vascular diseases that can cause bleeding, and many other conditions can be seen during the procedure. Biopsies for diagnostic purposes can be obtained from tissue other than normal, including tumor formations.


  • Changes in the habit of defecation (such as a patient suffering from constant constipation recently)
  • Visible bleeding from the anus or positive blood test in the stool
  • For follow-up of patients with cancer or polyps previously diagnosed in the large intestine.
  • Diagnosis and follow-up of inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn
  • Screening (Polyp? Cancer?) For people who have no complaints over 50 years of age
  • In families with a history of colon cancer in first-degree relatives, screening should be started 5 to 5 years before the age at which the cancer is determined (for example, if the father is 50 years old, he should start scans at age 40 when he is diagnosed with colon cancer)


The bowel is cleaned before colonoscopy. Drugs used both orally and rectally are preferred. In general, one day before the process, from the morning hours, solid (solid) foods are not taken. Feeding is continued with and without liquid. In the afternoon, cleansing is started with oral drugs. Later in the day due to these drugs will start diarrhea and fluid loss and blood pressure may drop, it is recommended to consume plenty of water between them. The patient will be hungry from midnight and prepared for the next day.


After colonoscopy, the patient is taken to the relaxation room.

It is normal to feel numbness due to the drugs used, to decrease perception and reasoning and not to remember the procedure. The patient in the resting room is followed up for 1-2 hours in terms of blood pressure, pulse, shortness of breath, abdominal pain and hemorrhage. It is expected that the air delivered during the colonoscopy will be removed by the breech and the swelling in the abdomen will regress.

At the end of this period, the patient can be discharged and returned to normal feeding and daily life.

However, work requiring attention, such as driving, is not recommended for the first 12 hours. For 24 hours of abdominal pain, abdominal distention, nausea, vomiting, fever, chills and continuous bleeding should be consulted to the physician.


In general, structures in the inner wall of the intestinal tract that are followed by swelling from the surface are called polyps.

Polyps have a genetic characteristic and are common in the society and their frequency increases with advancing age. It is important to note that most of the polyps detected and received during colonoscopy are benign, but colon cancers develop from polyps.

Their size varies from a few millimeters to a few centimeters, increasing their likelihood and being large (2 cm. Above), which increases their probability of being malignant. Since the majority of colon cancers are known to originate from polyps, they must be removed when they are seen during the procedure.

Polyps that are very enlarged may cause abdominal pain, hemorrhage, bowel obstruction. During the colonoscopy procedure, the polyps are captured by means of lasso-shaped wires called snare and the base part is removed by burning.

In the meantime, the patient does not feel pain. Following the procedure, the patient should be monitored for bleeding.

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