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Obesity and Infertility

Kadın hamilelik testini elinde tutuyor.

Link between infertility and obesity

Infertility is an important health problem that affects both society and family. It is difficult to manage and affects the psychosocial situation negatively for women and men. Because it is not only psychologically stressful and economically costly, but also creates physiological and emotional problems for couples due to diagnosis, therapeutic procedures and unclear pregnancy outcomes. Fertility; It is affected by genetics, gender, age, and most importantly, changeable lifestyle factors such as physical activity, high body weight, dietary habits. The relationship between infertility and energy balance, macronutrients (protein, carbohydrate, fat) and body mass index (BMI) has been investigated in studies. Hypothalamic amenorrhoea (HA) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are two common causes of infertility with evidence of changes in dietary habits.

It has been shown in many studies that an increase in Body Mass Index (BMI) increases the prevalence of infertility in both men and women. Being overweight affects fertility more in women than in men. It has been determined that 41% of women and 20.5% of men are obese in Turkey. In a research conducted; In women with PCOS, it has been observed that even not very high weight loss, such as 5-10%, increases reproductive functions in a positive way. As BMI increases in men; It has been observed that decreases in parameters such as sperm quality, sperm motility, testosterone level pave the way for infertility.

In many studies, it has been shown that low-carbohydrate diets not only provide rapid and significant weight loss in individuals who have become a lifestyle, but also reduce serum insulin and consequently improve insulin sensitivity in a positive way. In a study of women with PCOS and overweight women, a diet enriched with proteins was found to reduce androgen levels and increase insulin sensitivity as a result of weight loss, while modestly improving menstrual cycles. Studies have shown that some fatty acid groups, such as omega-3 and omega-6 oils, which are polyunsaturated fatty acids, will positively affect fertility, and that trans fatty acids may negatively affect ovulation function and accordingly support more insulin resistance.

In conclusion, despite the multifactorial etiology of reproductive dysfunction, it was observed that dietary factors can positively affect reproduction in both men and women. However, we know that dietary and lifestyle changes are among the most promising and invaluable interventions in maintaining and improving human health and fertility. When we examine the relationship between infertility and obesity, it is promising that laparoscopic bariatric surgery interventions carried out in the light of the innovations and developments offered by technology and science and the effectiveness of the applied balloon programs (swallowable, endoscopic gastric balloon) to improve and support fertility and to be considered as an option in the treatment of infertility appears as a method.

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