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Insulin Resistance and Prediabetes

A woman measuring her blood sugar level with a device



Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that helps glucose from your blood enter cells in your muscle, fat, and liver, where it is used for energy.

The food you eat is turned into blood sugar. Blood sugar enters your bloodstream, triggers the pancreas to release insulin. Insulin helps blood sugar get into the body’s cells so it can be used for energy. Insulin also signals the liver to store blood sugar for later use. Blood sugar enters the cells and sugar level in the bloodstream drops, signaling a drop in insulin as well. Low insulin levels stimulate the liver to release stored blood sugar, so energy is always available, even if you haven’t eaten in a while.


Insulin resistance occurs when the cells in your muscles, fat, and liver do not respond properly to the insulin released. As a result, your pancreas produces more insulin to help glucose get into your cells. As long as your pancreas is able to produce enough insulin to overcome your cells’ poor response to insulin, your blood sugar levels will remain in the healthy range. However, your pancreas produces more insulin to reduce your increased blood sugar level. This is called hyperinsulinemia.

Insulin resistance, also known as impaired insulin sensitivity, can be temporary or chronic and in some cases treatable.

Insulin resistance increases your risk of developing diabetes. You can be insulin resistant for years without knowing it. This condition does not typically trigger any obvious symptoms, so it’s important for a doctor to check your blood sugar levels regularly.

Insulin resistance increases the risk of diseases such as high blood pressure, overweight, high triglyceride major depression disorder.

If your cells become too resistant to insulin, it causes blood sugar levels to rise (hyperglycemia), which over time leads to prediabetes and Type 2 diabetes.

In addition to Type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance is releated with other conditions such as, obesity, cardiovascular disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, polycystic ovary syndrome.


Prediabetes occurs when your blood sugar levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be considered as diabetes. Prediabetes usually occurs in people who already have some insulin resistance.

Anyone can develop insulin resistance, either temporarily or chronically. Over time, chronic insulin resistance can lead to prediabetes if it is left as untreated.

Prediabetes can lead to Type 2 diabetes, the most common type of diabetes. Type 2 diabetes occurs when your pancreas cannot produce enough insulin or when your body does not use insulin well (insulin resistance), causing high blood sugar levels.


According to researches, although it is not known exactly what causes insulin resistance and prediabetes, overweight and lack of physical activity are stated as the main factors.

Insulin resistance can be seen in most people. Even you don’t have to have diabetes and also it can be temporary or chronic. The two main factors that contribute to insulin resistance are excess fat, especially around your belly, and a lack of physical activity.

People who have genetic or lifestyle risk factors are more likely to develop insulin resistance or prediabetes.

People who are 45 years or older, have health problems such as high blood pressure and abnormal cholesterol levels, a history of heart disease or stroke, polycystic ovary syndrome, high blood pressure, abnormal cholesterol levels are more likely to have prediabetes.

Obesity and excess weight, especially too much fat called visceral fat around the abdomen and organs, is believed to be the main cause of insulin resistance. Waist measurements of 102 cm or more for men and 89 cm or more for women are associated with insulin resistance. This is true even if your body mass index (BMI) is in the normal range.

Excess weight can lead to insulin resistance and may play a role in the development of fatty liver disease.

Not doing enough physical activity is also linked to insulin resistance and prediabetes. Regular physical activity causes changes in the body that make it better at keeping your blood sugar levels stable.


If you have insulin resistance or prediabetes, you can prevent it from turning into diabetes by changing your lifestyle. For this:

Try to make exercise your daily routine, preferably at least 5 days a week for 30 minutes.
Try to eat a nutrient-rich, balanced diet as often as possible.
If you’re overweight, consider losing weight. Even reducing your body weight by just 10 percent can help reduce your risk of developing diabetes.
Pay attention to your sleep and your stress level.

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