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Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load

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What is the Glycemic Index (GI)?

The glycemic index is a measure of the different blood glucose response produced by the same amount of carbohydrates in different foods. The increase in the amount of blood glucose after consumption of the food containing 50 grams of digestible carbohydrates is calculated by comparing the increase caused by the reference food with a glycemic index of 100. White bread or glucose syrup is preferred as reference food.
The level of glucose in the blood is regulated by the pancreas and liver. Excess glucose in the blood is converted to glycogen and stored in the liver. Insulin, secreted by beta cells in the pancreas, carries glucose to the cells. As the amount of glucose in the blood decreases, the glycogen stored in the liver is converted to glucose and passed into the blood, thus balancing the glucose level in the blood.
When foods with a low glycemic index are consumed, glucose is released more regularly and slowly, the pancreas does not secrete much insulin and a long-term feeling of satiety is experienced. Continuous and excessive consumption of foods with a high glycemic index causes a rapid rise in blood sugar and excessive insulin secretion from the pancreas. This results in lubrication, feeling of hunger, sudden drop in blood sugar and subsequent weight gain.
The glycemic index of a food; It varies according to maturity level, structure and type, starch content, sugar, fiber and lipid content, processing and cooking method, acid content of the meal.

What is Glycemic Load (GY)?

The glycemic load indicates the effect of the consumption of a food on blood glucose. It is calculated by multiplying the glycemic index value of the food consumed with the amount of carbohydrates and dividing by 100.
Glycemic Load = (GI x Carbohydrate Amount g)/100

Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load Classification:



Glycemic Index 

Glycemic Load










Whole grains and vegetables with high fiber content have lower glycemic index and glycemic load values. The fiber in the fruit slows down digestion, so the GI and GY value of the fruit itself is lower than its juice. Rice, potatoes, white flour foods, dried fruits and foods with added sugar have high GI values.

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